|"Gadrooned-Dome's Muqarnas Corbel: Analysis, and Decoding Historical Drawings"
|Architectural Science Review,
vol.46, No. 1
This paper analyzes the type of muqarnas (muqarnas-corbel) that appeared under some gadrooned domes during the fourteenth and the fifteenth centuries in Egypt and Central Asia.
It starts with a study of the gadrooned dome type, its proper terminology, origin, evolution, and sub-types.
Then, the paper defines the muqarnas-corbel under gadroons, presents the buildings where it appeared, suggests its formal origins, draws an evolution map, and concludes its regional stylistic attributes.
Finally, and based on the above, it decodes two historical muqarnas-corbel drawings into possible three-dimensional forms.
THE ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURAL ELEMENT
DEFINITION, GEOMETRICAL ANALYSIS,
AND A COMPUTER GENERATION SYSTEM
M. A. Yaghan
drawings and programs written in AutoLISPr
152 pages; 79 drawings; 24 x 16 cm, Paperback;
Price: ATS 549,- / DEM 78,- / EUR 39,90
|This book is an in-depth
study of muqarnas, a computer algorithm for its
generation, and a source for new evolutionary
It presents a comprehensive definition, a study
of muqarnas terminology, etymology, origin,
geometry, design process, data structure, and
It is an original work necessary for all
interested in Islamic art and architecture.
The accompanying CD contains:
- A separate on-line study
of a special type of muqarnas (SGMD)
along with software for its creation
written in AutoLISP T.
- A short on-line course on
muqarnas, with many virtual worlds.
- Many muqarnas images, DXF,
and VRML files.
|To order online:
Mag. Roman Jacobek
A-1050 Wien / AUSTRIA
thesis is an attempt to analyze the muqarnas
phenomenon, establishing it as a distinct field
and to design a computer algorithm for muqarnas
generation system. It is divided into two parts
first part starts with a review of the terms used
to describe muqarnas along with the etymology of
the word. It presents a new comprehensive
definition for muqarnas (that is both inclusive
and generic), and discusses its origin (formally,
geographically, and chronologically).
categorizes the values of the muqarnas criterion
either as characteristics (constant values for
all muqarnas forms) or attributes (values that
vary according to the type). Their different
aspects are identified, defined, and extensively
analyzed. This concept of characteristics and
attributes constitutes the tools for further
typological studies, which are suggested as the
means to arrive at the final evolution map of
first part ends with a five-step model for the
muqarnas design process.
second part recognizes the needs for a muqarnas
computer generation system, discusses its module
design in relation to the design process, and
suggests the data structure for any muqarnas form
in correspondence to the issues analyzed in the
first part. The second part ends by suggesting
new contemporary steps in the evolution of
issues discussed in this thesis are the result of
an original work conducted by the author unless
Pre-designed Erecting Units: Analysis, Definition
of the Generic Set of Units, and a System of Unit-Creation
as a New Evolutionary Step."
|Architectural Science Review,
vol.44, No. 3
The muqarnas is an architectural
form developed and used in Islamic architecture
over the last millennium. In short it can be
defined as: a three-dimensional form, whose
visual function is the gradual transition between
two levels, two sizes, and or two shapes.
One of the methods of its
production, which prevailed in the Islamic
western lands, involved the use of certain sets
of pre-designed units, that when combined in
different ways generate a very wide range of
alternatives. The plans of these units are based
on shapes of 45-, 90-, 135- degrees. Thus, they
are limited in their final output; and their
innovativeness was long lost accordingly.
The main objective of this paper
is to create a new set (or sets) of units that
belong to the same logic of these described but
overcome their limitations.
The method is first to analyze
the available units, second to reach the minimum
number of units that can be considered as the
generic units, third to synthesize their origin
of creation (as it is not found in any literature)
and thus creating a system of unit-generation,
and finally to create the new sets of units.
These sets can be considered as a new
evolutionary step of the muqarnas of this type.
Accordingly, a computer program
for the unit creation was created to test and
evaluate the concepts presented in the paper.
Architectural-Visual-Experience Through Virtual
Reality Using VRML: Muqarnas Example."
|Journal of King Abdulaziz University (Environmental Design Sciences) Vol. 1
|The Proceedings of the
Symposium on the Development of Engineering and
Environmental Design Education, College of
Engineering and College of Environmental Design -
King Abdulaziz Univesity-Jeddah-Saudi Arabia
possibility of replacing the conventional methods
of teaching (in part or in whole) virtual reality
opens wide a possibility of teaching one aspect
of architecture that we are, still, not capable
of fully teaching, visual-experience.
experience is a part of the architectural
education that educators try to incorporate in
many levels and courses (like sketching, 3D
drawings and model-making in design courses; and
videos, slides, models, and field-trips in
The scope of
this paper falls in the architectural history
category with muqarnas being its specific topic.
Muqarnas is usually looked upon as complicated
and as very difficult to understand. The
conventional methods of its teaching include
photographs, plans, elevations, 3D drawings, and
creates an online course on muqarnas that
includes many virtual worlds in VRML and compares
them as to current available conventional methods
of form teaching. The course is preliminary
evaluated, which concluded that the course should
be enhanced, a large-scale survey should be
conducted, and that VR experience have a better
role in form teaching than the conventional
methods. Finally, this paper represents a call
for the adoption of VR as a new tool to help
satisfy the goals of architectural education.
|"Decoding the Two-dimensional
Pattern Found at Takht-i Sulayman into Three-dimensional
purpose of this paper is to propose new three-dimensional
translations of the two-dimensional plan of a
muqarnas found incised on a plaster slab,
discovered in Takht-i Sulayman, Iran, and studied
and analysed by Ulrich Harb. Harb proposed a
three-dimensional interpretation, but this does
not match the general historical context
suggested by the contemporary examples of
muqarnas forms, nor does it match the logic of
the composition suggested by the two-dimensional
plan. New three-dimensional decodings of the plan
are therefore proposed. The method used by this
paper is proposed as a model for later studies
concerning the decoding of similar historical
|Journal of King Saud
University-Architecture and Planning, vol. 12
The arch is an important
architectural design element. Its production can
be a long and tedious process of design,
calculations, drafting, adjustments, construction
drawings production and other tasks. This paper
establishes the foundations for arch-creating
software that reduces the time needed for
producing the arch and enhances the quality of
the arch designed by allowing a wide variety of
arches for the architect to choose from.
First, it defines the full range
of arch types which it will cover, finds the
common parts that are shared by sub-groups of
these arches as well as the singular parts,
applies the historical concepts of distortions
(an approach that enabled this paper to create
totally new types of arches as one of its major
contributions to this field), defines the
variable set for each arch type, and discusses
its relevant geometry. Finally, it decides on the
most suitable environment for such a program. Due
to the fact that an arch is only a part of an
architectural drawing, there was a need for an
environment that provides capabilities to draw
the other necessary parts andto which the arch
program can be integrated. This dictated the
AutoCAD environment, which provides both a
programming language (AutoLISP, which is a
special dialect of the Lisp language) and the
ability to draw any item needed. All of the arch
drawings presented in this paper were created via
software written according to the basis it
establishes. These play the role of a proof to
the theory of the paper.
|"Structural Genuine Muqarnas
Dome: Definition, Unit Analysis, and a Computer
|Journal of King Saud
University, vol. 10, Architecture and
One way to understand the
muqarans phenomenon is by establishing types
according to some attribute values, analysis of
which, as well as those found common to the type,
in relation to other similar studies would later
explain issues of form evolution, origin,...etc.
This paper represents one such study. It is
divided into three parts. The first defines
"Structural Genuine-Muqarnas Dome" as a
distinct type, that has been included along with
other types under "muqarnas dome". The
second analyses this type's unit system. The
third presents an algorithm of a computer
generation system for this type, its advantages,
and some outputs of a test program.
Historical Muqarnas Homepage
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